Wednesday, November 12, 2008

In education, a teacher is one who helps students or pupils, often in a school, as well as in a family, religious or community setting. A teacher is an acknowledged guide or helper in processes of learning. A teacher's role may vary between cultures. Academic subjects are emphasized in many societies, but a teacher's duties may include instruction in craftsmanship or vocational training, spirituality, civics, community roles, or life skills.

Teachers act as facilitators or coaches, using classroom presentations or individual instruction to help students learn and apply concepts in subjects such as science, mathematics, or English. They plan, evaluate, and assign lessons; prepare, administer, and grade tests; listen to oral presentations; and maintain classroom discipline. Teachers observe and evaluate a student’s performance and potential and increasingly are asked to use new assessment methods. For example, teachers may examine a portfolio of a student’s artwork or writing in order to judge the student’s overall progress. They then can provide additional assistance in areas in which a student needs help. Teachers also grade papers, prepare report cards, and meet with parents and school staff to discuss a student’s academic progress or personal problems.
Many teachers use a “hands-on” approach that uses “props” or “manipulatives” to help children understand abstract concepts, solve problems, and develop critical thought processes. For example, they teach the concepts of numbers or of addition and subtraction by playing board games. As the children get older, teachers use more sophisticated materials, such as science apparatus, cameras, or computers. They also encourage collaboration in solving problems by having students work in groups to discuss and solve problems together. To be prepared for success later in life, students must be able to interact with others, adapt to new technology, and think through problems logically.
Preschool, kindergarten, and elementary school teachers play a vital role in the development of children. What children learn and experience during their early years can shape their views of themselves and the world and can affect their later success or failure in school, work, and their personal lives. Preschool, kindergarten, and elementary school teachers introduce children to mathematics, language, science, and social studies. They use games, music, artwork, films, books, computers, and other tools to teach basic skills.
Preschool children learn mainly through play and interactive activities. Preschool teachers capitalize on children’s play to further language and vocabulary development (using storytelling, rhyming games, and acting games), improve social skills (having the children work together to build a neighborhood in a sandbox), and introduce scientific and mathematical concepts (showing the children how to balance and count blocks when building a bridge or how to mix colors when painting). Thus, a less structured approach, including small-group lessons, one-on-one instruction, and learning through creative activities such as art, dance, and music, is adopted to teach preschool children. Play and hands-on teaching also are used by kindergarten teachers, but academics begin to take priority in kindergarten classrooms. Letter recognition, phonics, numbers, and awareness of nature and science, introduced at the preschool level, are taught primarily in kindergarten.

Most elementary school teachers instruct one class of children in several subjects. In some schools, two or more teachers work as a team and are jointly responsible for a group of students in at least one subject. In other schools, a teacher may teach one special subject—usually music, art, reading, science, arithmetic, or physical education—to a number of classes. A small but growing number of teachers instruct multilevel classrooms, with students at several different learning levels.
Middle school teachers and secondary school teachers help students delve more deeply into subjects introduced in elementary school and expose them to more information about the world. Middle and secondary school teachers specialize in a specific subject, such as English, Spanish, mathematics, history, or biology. They also may teach subjects that are career oriented. Vocational education teachers, also referred to as career and technical or career-technology teachers, instruct and train students to work in a wide variety of fields, such as healthcare, business, auto repair, communications, and, increasingly, technology. They often teach courses that are in high demand by area employers, who may provide input into the curriculum and offer internships to students. Many vocational teachers play an active role in building and overseeing these partnerships. Additional responsibilities of middle and secondary school teachers may include career guidance and job placement, as well as follow-ups with students after graduation.

Computers play an integral role in the education teachers provide. Resources such as educational software and the Internet expose students to a vast range of experiences and promote interactive learning. Through the Internet, students can communicate with other students anywhere in the world, allowing them to share experiences and differing viewpoints. Students also use the Internet for individual research projects and to gather information. Computers are used in other classroom activities as well, from solving math problems to learning English as a second language. Teachers also may use computers to record grades and perform other administrative and clerical duties. They must continually update their skills so that they can instruct and use the latest technology in the classroom.
Teachers often work with students from varied ethnic, racial, and religious backgrounds. With growing minority populations in most parts of the country, it is important for teachers to work effectively with a diverse student population. Accordingly, some schools offer training to help teachers enhance their awareness and understanding of different cultures. Teachers may also include multicultural programming in their lesson plans, to address the needs of all students, regardless of their cultural background.

In recent years, site-based management, which allows teachers and parents to participate actively in management decisions regarding school operations, has gained popularity. In many schools, teachers are increasingly involved in making decisions regarding the budget, personnel, textbooks, curriculum design, and teaching methods.
Work environment. Seeing students develop new skills and gain an appreciation of knowledge and learning can be very rewarding. However, teaching may be frustrating when one is dealing with unmotivated or disrespectful students. Occasionally, teachers must cope with unruly behavior and violence in the schools. Teachers may experience stress in dealing with large classes, heavy workloads, or old schools that are run down and lack many modern amenities. Accountability standards also may increase stress levels, with teachers expected to produce students who are able to exhibit satisfactory performance on standardized tests in core subjects. Many teachers, particularly in public schools, are also frustrated by the lack of control they have over what they are required to teach.
Teachers in private schools generally enjoy smaller class sizes and more control over establishing the curriculum and setting standards for performance and discipline. Their students also tend to be more motivated, since private schools can be selective in their admissions processes.
Teachers are sometimes isolated from their colleagues because they work alone in a classroom of students. However, some schools allow teachers to work in teams and with mentors to enhance their professional development.
Including school duties performed outside the classroom, many teachers work more than 40 hours a week. Part-time schedules are more common among preschool and kindergarten teachers. Although most school districts have gone to all-day kindergartens, some kindergarten teachers still teach two kindergarten classes a day. Most teachers work the traditional 10-month school year with a 2-month vacation during the summer. During the vacation break, those on the 10-month schedule may teach in summer sessions, take other jobs, travel, or pursue personal interests. Many enroll in college courses or workshops to continue their education. Teachers in districts with a year-round schedule typically work 8 weeks, are on vacation for 1 week, and have a 5-week midwinter break. Preschool teachers working in day care settings often work year round.
Most States have tenure laws that prevent public school teachers from being fired without just cause and due process. Teachers may obtain tenure after they have satisfactorily completed a probationary period of teaching, normally 3 years. Tenure does not absolutely guarantee a job, but it does provide some security.ion on the same level as many other professions.
Health Education

Health education is defined as the principle by which individuals and groups of people learn to behave in a manner conducive to the promotion, maintenance, or restoration of health. The ultimate aim of Health Education is Positive Behavioural Modification
Education for health begins with people. It hopes to motivate them with whatever interests they may have in improving their living conditions. Its aim is to develop in them a sense of responsibility for health conditions for themselves as individuals, as members of families, and as communities. In communicable disease control, health education commonly includes an appraisal of what is known by a population about a disease, an assessment of habits and attitudes of the people as they relate to spread and frequency of the disease, and the presentation of specific means to remedy observed deficiencies. (Washington State Department of Health)
Health education is included in the curriculum of most schools. In the United States some forty states require the teaching of health education. A comprehensive health education curriculum consists of planned learning experiences which will help students achieve desirable attitudes and practices related to critical health issues. Some of these are: emotional health and a positive self image; appreciation, respect for, and care of the human body and its vital organs; physical fitness; health issues of alcohol, tobacco, drug use and abuse; health misconceptions and quackery; effects of exercise on the body systems and on general well being; nutrition and weight control; sexual relationships, the scientific, social and economic aspects of community and ecological health; communicable and degenerative diseases including sexually transmitted diseases; disaster preparedness; safety and driver education; choosing professional medical and health services; and choices of health careers.
The term Health Education can also refer to the process of educating health professionals, Health Education plays a crucial role in the development of a healthy, inclusive, and equitable social, psychological, and physical environment. It has undergone radical change in recent years, and modern approaches now use an empowering, multi-dimensional, multi-professional approach which relates to all settings, organizations, and parts and levels of society, including schools, colleges, the community, and the workplace. This leading edge journal reflects the best of modern thinking about health education, offers stimulating and incisive coverage of current debates, concerns, interventions, and initiatives, and provides a wealth of evidence, research, information, and ideas to inform and inspire those in both the theory and practice of health education.

Key Journal Audiences
Those involved in the theory, practice, implementation and policy creation of health education at local, national and international level, including:
the education sector, including nursery units, pre-school, school, further, higher and continuing education, and education departments
the health sector, including public health, primary care, health centres, medical centres, hospitals and clinics, including those that promote lifestyle change and stress reduction
the social sector, including social services, agencies for children and young people, working adults, the elderly, community, housing, and the environment
the voluntary sector, including agencies working to promote the wellbeing of children and families, tackling poverty and disadvantage, and promoting environmental concerns. including post-secondary education culminating in supervised experience.

We are all familiar with the word "stress". Stress is when you are worried about getting laid off your job, or worried about having enough money to pay your bills, or worried about your mother when the doctor says she may need an operation. In fact, to most of us, stress is synonymous with worry. If it is something that makes you worry, then it is stress.
Your body, however, has a much broader definition of stress. TO YOUR BODY, STRESS IS SYNONYMOUS WITH CHANGE. Anything that causes a change in your life causes stress. It doesn't matter if it is a "good" change, or a "bad" change, they are both stress. When you find your dream apartment and get ready to move, that is stress. If you break your leg, that is stress. Good or bad, if it is a CHANGE in your life, it is stress as far as your body is concerned.
Even IMAGINED CHANGE is stress. (Imagining changes is what we call "worrying".) If you fear that you will not have enough money to pay your rent, that is stress. If you worry that you may get fired, that is stress. If you think that you may receive a promotion at work, that is also stress (even though this would be a good change). Whether the event is good or bad, imagining changes in your life is stressful.
Anything that causes CHANGE IN YOUR DAILY ROUTINE is stressful.
Anything that causes CHANGE IN YOUR BODY HEALTH is stressful.
IMAGINED CHANGES are just as stressful as real changes.
Let us look at several types of stress -- ones that are so commonplace that you might not even realize that they are stressful.......
Emotional Stress
When arguments, disagreements, and conflicts cause CHANGES in your personal life -- that is stress.
Catching a cold, breaking an arm, a skin infection, a sore back, are all CHANGES in your body condition.
Pushing Your Body Too Hard
A major source of stress is overdriving yourself. If you are working (or partying) 16 hours a day, you will have reducedyour available time for rest. Sooner or later, the energy drain on your system will cause the body to fall behind in its repair work. There will not be enough time or energy for the body to fix broken cells, or replace used up brain neurotransmitters. CHANGES will occur in your body's internal environment. You will "hit thewall," "run out of gas". If you continue, permanent damage may be done. The body's fight to stay healthy in the face of the increased energy that your are expending is major stress.
Environmental Factors
Very hot or very cold climates can be stressful. Very high altitude may be a stress. Toxins or poisons are a stress. Each of these factors threatens to cause CHANGES in your body's internal environment.
The Special Case of Tobacco Use
Tobacco is a powerful toxin!! Smoking destroys cells that clean your trachea, bronchi, and lungs. Smoking causes emphysema and chronic bronchitis, which progress to slow suffocation. The carbon monoxide from cigarette smoking causes chronic carbon monoxide poisoning. Tobacco use damages the arteries in your body, causing insufficient blood supply to the brain, heart, and vital organs. Cigarette smoking increases the risk of cancer 50 fold.
Chewing tobacco or snuff is no safe haven. It also damages your arteries, and it carries the same cancer risk. (Cancers of the head and neck are particularly vicious, disfiguring, and deadly).
Poisoning the body with carbon monoxide, and causing the physical illnesses of emphysema, chronic bronchitis, cancer, and arterial damage, tobacco is a powerful source of added stress to one's life.
Hormonal Factors
The vast hormonal changes of puberty are severe stressors. A person's body actually CHANGES shape, sexual organs begin to function, new hormones are released in large quantities. Puberty, as we all know, is very stressful.
Once a woman passes puberty, her body is designed to function best in the presence of female hormones. For women past puberty, a lack of female hormones is a major stress on the body. Once a month, just prior to menstruation, a woman's hormone levels drop sharply. In many women, the stress of sharply falling hormones is enough to create a temporary OVERSTRESS. This temporary OVERSTRESS is popularly known as Pre MenstrualSyndrome (PMS).
Following a pregnancy, hormone levels CHANGE dramatically. After a normal childbirth, or a miscarriage, some women may be thrown into OVERSTRESS by loss of the hormones of pregnancy.
There is another time in a woman's life when hormone levels decline. This is the menopause. The decline in hormones during menopause is slow and steady. Nevertheless, this menopausal decline causes enough stress on the body to produce OVERSTRESS in many women.
Taking Responsibility for Another Person's Actions
When you take responsibility for another person's actions, CHANGES occur in your life over which you have little or no control. Taking responsibility for another person's actions is a major stressor.
Allergic Stress
Allergic reactions are a part of your body's natural defense mechanism. When confronted with a substance which your body considers toxic, your body will try to get rid of it, attack it, or somehow neutralize it. If it is something that lands in your nose, you might get a runny, sneezy nose. If it lands on your skin, you might get blistery skin. If you inhale it, you'll get wheezy lungs. If you eat it, you may break out in itchy red hives all over your body. Allergy is a definite stress, requiring large changes in energy expenditure on the part of your body's defense system to fight off what the body perceives as a dangerous attack by an outside toxin.e Betterment of Mankind. You're going to need it...

Tuesday, November 11, 2008


A Writer

A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, as well as those who have written in many different forms. The word is almost synonymous with author, although somebody who writes, for example, a laundry list, could technically be called the writer of the list, but not an author. Skilled writers are able to use language to portray ideas and images, whether fiction or non-fiction.

Ernest Hemingway, typing away
A writer may compose in many different forms including (but certainly not limited to) poetry, prose, or music. Accordingly, a writer in specialist mode may rank as a poet, novelist, composer, lyricist, playwright, mythographer, journalist, film scriptwriter, etc. (See also: creative writing, technical writing and academic papers.)
Writers' output frequently contributes to the cultural content of a society, and that society may value its writerly corpus -- or literature -- as an art much like the visual arts (see: painting, sculpture, photography), music, craft and performance art (see: drama, theatre, opera, musical).
In the British Royal Navy, Writer is the trade designation for an administrative clerk.

Internet Writers
The popularity of the Internet opened the door of opportunity to many established and aspiring writers alike. The new medium created concerns over writing quality in the Internet age. Writers’ advocates believe the Internet has led to a lower level of writing standards.[1] While new modes of communication through the Internet are constantly advancing and changing, the issue of writing quality questions the very definition of writing in the Internet age.
Whether writers are devoted to the craft or not, they are expected to be able to write well both offline as well as online, or at least recognize the difference between the two.[2] When writing for the Web, it is the content that matters. “Writing for the Web is very different from writing for print. Print today remains superior to the Web when it comes to visible space, image and type quality, and speed.”

Web visitors are quickly scrolling through sites seeking specific information and will not always take the time to read every word. Traditional writing techniques and standards are less of a priority, as multiple headings, bullets and lists are needed to aid scanning readers. Although reputable writers compose much of this writing, the quality can appear less than professional. Also, with the increase of tech people writing for the Web, the rules of grammar need to be put into effect.

Writers not writing for a living often find enjoyment and small payouts from Web sites seeking material to raise their sites higher in the search engine rankings. Although this is a legitimate philosophy, the writing being published on the Web can often be less than professional. This lack of professionalism distorts the line between qualified and amateur writers. Writing standards are often not the highest priority as Web sites seek to drive traffic to gain advertising exposure. It seems as if readers are not as concerned about the writing quality, as long as they feel they are reading a relevant account on a particular topic.
Blog Writers
Web based writers are often attributed as bloggers. Blogs are avenues by which to get information or opinions out into the Web for exposure. Bloggers have taken on a new wave of communication seeking to benefit all Internet users. Anyone with Internet access and a computer can set up a Web site or blog wherein to publish his/her writing

The difference between writing on a blog versus a Web site is the amount of readers, along with the credibility each receives. Though blogs are generally informal and written by individuals, although marketers and advertisers have recently taken to them and use them as a tool to promote companies and receive feedback from consumers.

Blogs are easy to create in the 21st Century due to the availability of templates offered on free blog Web sites. With blogs being easy to access and editable for both blog authors and readers, the contributions are virtually limitless.
Blogs and blog writing are taking on more meaning than just idle gossip between users and contributors. Educators are seeing the benefits of maintaining blogs in the classrooms as an educational tool. Teachers are able to keep an easy-to-maintain line of communication open with parents and other educators. Blogs also stimulate students to compose reflective responses to issues within an open forum.
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Access our free writers groups and read samples of our free monthly newsletter for writers. (To receive our free newsletter and schedule of writing classes, please subscribe to our mailing list. We never give out your email address to anyone for any reason.) Our Web site includes a section of tips and resources for writers including feature articles on topics like getting published and basic information on agents, copyrights, and much more. We also offer tips on punctuation, confusing words, passive and active voice, point of view, and other subjects. Our extensive list of helpful links will guide you to valuable information on the Web. Want to find a list of words that were commonly used prior to the 1900s or estimate distances between two cities? Need a map? Our references will lead you right to the "write" sources.
bookstore & publishing
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Monday, November 10, 2008

The importance and meaning of Literature
When we begin the study of literature, we find it has always two aspects, one of the simple enjoyment and appreciation and the other of analysis and exact description. Usually it happens when we go through literature in our classroom either by ourselves or by our teachers one thing matters very much and that is the importance of literature for students? Until our concept is not clear we can never understand what literature is? We need time and understanding to nurture our spirits.
I read somewhere in a short story of "The shell and the Book". A child and a man were one day walking on the seashore when the child found a little shell and held it to his ear. Suddenly he heard sounds, strange, low, melodious sounds, as if the shell were remembering and repeating to itself the murmurs of its ocean home. The child's face filled with wonder as he listened. Here in the little shell, apparently, was a voice from another world, and he listened with delight to its mystery and music. Then came the man, explaining that the child heard nothing strange; that the pearly curves of the shell simply caught a multitude of sounds too faint for human ears and filled the glimmering hollows with the murmur of innumerable echoes. It was not a new world, but only the unnoticed harmony of the old that had aroused the child's wonder.
So some such experience as this awaits us when we begin the study of literature with its two aspects of simple enjoyment and appreciation and the other if analysis and exact description. Like when a song appeals to the ear or a noble book to the heart we discover a new world for the moment, at least, a completely new world which is very different from our own world and it sees that we are in a place of dreams and magic.
"Behind every book is a man; behind the man is a race; and behind the race are the natural and social environments whose influence is unconsciously reflected”, this we must know, if the book is to speak its whole message. In simple word, we have now reached at the point where we wish to understand and enjoy literature, and the first step toward it is to know its essential qualities as exact definition is impossible.
In broader sense, perhaps literature means simply written records of the race, including all its history and sciences, as well as its poems and novels, and in narrower sense literature is the artistic record of life and most of our writing excluded from it. A history or a science may be a literature sometimes but only when we forget the subject matter and the presentation of facts in the simple beauty of its expression.
Qualities of Literature
The first significant thing is the artistic quality of all literature. All art is the expression of life in forms of truth and beauty or in another word which exist in this world and which remain unnoticed until bought to our attention by some sensitive human soul same like the delicate curves of the shell reflects sounds and harmonies too faint to be otherwise noticed. In the same pleasing, surprising way, all artistic work must be a kind of revelations architecture is probably the oldest creative work of arts and yet we still have many builders but few architects, that is, men whose work in wood or stone suggests some hidden truth and beauty to the human senses.
The second significant quality of literature is its suggestiveness, its appeal to our emotions and imagination rather to our intellect.
The third characteristic of literature is arising itself directly from the other two and that is permanence.
The importance of Literature
It is a prevalent opinion that literature is like all arts is mere play of imagination, pleasing enough like a new novel without any serious or practical importance. Nothing could be farther from the truth, Literature preserves the ideals of a people and these ideal are love, faith, duty, friendship, freedom and reverence which are the part of human life most worthy of preservation.Lastly in summary we can say Literature is the expression of life in words of truth and beauty, it is the written record of man's spirit of his thoughts, emotions, aspirations, and it is the history and only the history of the human soul having characteristics of its artistic quality, its suggestiveness and its permanent qualities which will never fade.